The use of 5 G with other currently used generations of technology standards with different frequencies will lead to accumulative effects (Tan et al., 2017). Cumulative biological effects are strongly related to the intensity and duration of radiofrequency exposure. The current exposure limits are based on adverse health outcomes due to temperature rise (tissue warming and inducible tissue stimulation from short-term or acute exposures) (Belpomme et al., 2018). The present study was designed to determine the effects of exposure to 3.5 GHz RFR (GSM, 217 Hz modulation frequency, pulse width 577 μs) emitted from 5 G technologies on total antioxidant (TAS), total oxidant (TOS), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nesfatin, ghrelin, and irisin levels in the brains of healthy and diabetic rats and possible histological changes.
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